Imaging methods based on coherent Raman scattering (CRS) are, nowadays, among the most potent techniques for a rapid visualization of the chemical composition of complex structures with sub-micrometer resolution. In particular, these methods are called Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) and Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS).
Both involve third-order nonlinear optical processes (χ(3)) where three electromagnetic waves interact with the sample volume to generate a characteristic optical signal. Upon coincidence of the difference frequency of a pair of such waves corresponding to the frequency of a Raman resonance, the signal is greatly enhanced. These techniques are typically employed to image bio-molecules in living or fixed cells or tissues. They offer the great advantage to not require any sort of labeling or staining . Additionally, spectral information is obtained using broadband light sources . The signal-to-noise ratio of these applications benefits greatly from the application of pulsed lasers at high repetition rates.
AFS offers compact, alignment-free sources for hyperspectral coherent Raman spectroscopy fully based on fiber-technology. The extreme tuning speed of our sources enables coverage of all resonances within a few seconds. The outstanding functionality of the systems has been proven in laboratory and clinical environments many times over the last years [3,4,5].
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 Cheng, Ji-Xin; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney "Coherent raman scattering microscopy". Boca Raton, London, New York: CRC Press, Series in cellular and clinical imaging (2018).
 D. Polli, V. Kumar, C. M. Valensise, M. Marangoni, and G. Cerullo, Broadband Coherent Raman Scattering Microscopy". Laser Photonics Rev. 12 (9) 1800020 (2018).
 F. B. Legesse, T. Meyer, S. Heuke, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, "Dual-focus coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using a compact two-beam fiber laser source" Opt. Lett. 42, 183 (2017).
 C. Krafft, I. W. Schie, T. Meyer, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, "Developments in spontaneous and coherent Raman scattering microscopic imaging for biomedical applications" Chem. Soc. Rev. 45, 1819–1849 (2016).
 T. Gottschall, T. Meyer-Zedler, M. Schmitt, R. Huber, J. Popp, A. Tünnermann, J. Limpert, "Ultra-compact tunable fiber laser for coherent anti-Stokes Raman imaging" J Raman Spectrosc 1 2021.